Severe Weather Preparedness

View our Severe Weather Preparedness Guide here!


Floods

Flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Flooding can happen in every U.S. state and territory. However, all floods are not alike. Some can develop slowly during an extended period of rain, or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Others, such as flash floods, can occur quickly, even without any visible signs of rain. Be prepared for flooding no matter where you live, but particularly if you are in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Even a very small stream or dry creek bed can overflow and create flooding.

Prepare for Flooding

  • Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel in your home if you live in an area that has a high flood risk.
  • Consider installing "check valves" to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home.
  • If feasible, construct barriers to stop floodwater from entering the building and seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds.
  • Property insurance does not typically cover flood damage. Talk to your insurance provider about your policy and consider if you need additional coverage.
  • Get a kit of emergency supplies and prepare a portable kit in case you have to evacuate.
  • Familiarize yourself with the terms that are used to identify a thunderstorm hazard, including understanding the difference between a severe thunderstorm watch and a severe thunderstorm warning.
  • A flood watch or flash flood warning means there is a possibility of flooding or a flash flood in your area.

Be Prepared to Evacuate

  • If time allows, bring in outside furniture and move your valuables to higher places in your home. Unplug electrical appliances, moving them to higher levels, if possible. However, do not touch an electric appliance if you are wet or standing in water.
  • If you have a car, fill the gas tank in case you have to evacuate.
  • A flood warning means a flood is occurring or will likely occur soon. If you are advised to evacuate do so immediately.
  • A flash flood warning means a flash flood is occurring. Seek higher ground immediately; do not wait for instructions.
  • Visit NOAA Watch for more weather-related information.

Plan to Evacuate

  • Plan how you will leave and where you will go if you are advised to evacuate.
  • If you do not have a car, plan alternate means of evacuating.
  • Plan places where your family will meet, both within and outside of your immediate neighborhood.
  • Identify several places you could go in an emergency, a friend's home in another town, a motel or public shelter.
  • If you have a car, keep a half tank of gas in it at all times in case you need to evacuate.
  • Become familiar with alternate routes and other means of transportation out of your area.
  • Take your emergency supply kit.
  • Lock the door behind you.
  • Listen to NOAA Weather Radio for information.
  • Take your pets with you, but understand that only service animals may be permitted in public shelters. Plan how you will care for your pets in an emergency.
  • Call or email the "out-of-state" contact in your family communications plan.
  • Tell them where you are going.
  • Leave a note telling others when you left and where you are going.
  • Check with neighbors who may need a ride.
  • Do not walk through moving water, if possible. Look for areas where the water is not moving. What might seem like a small amount of moving water can easily knock you down.
  • Do not drive into flooded areas. If your vehicle becomes surrounded by rising water, get out quickly and move to higher ground, if possible.

Stay Informed

  • Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do. However, you should listen to NOAA Weather Radio, watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.
  • If it has been raining hard for several hours or if it has been raining steadily for days there may be the potential for flooding. Use common sense and available information. If water is rising quickly or you see a moving wall of mud or debris, immediately move to higher ground.
  • Stay out of flood waters, if possible. The water may be contaminated or electrically charged. However, should you find yourself trapped in your vehicle in rising water get out immediately and seek higher ground.
  • Stay away from downed power lines to avoid the risk of electric shock or electrocution.
  • Do not return to your home until local authorities say it is safe. Even after flood waters recede, roads may be weakened and could collapse. Buildings may be unstable, and drinking water may be contaminated.
  • Use common sense and exercise caution.
 

Tornadoes

Tornadoes are nature's most violent storms.  They can appear suddenly, without warning, and can be invisible until dust and debris are picked up or a funnel cloud appears.  Planning and practicing specifically how and where you take shelter is a matter of survival.  Be prepared to act quickly.  Keep in mind that while tornadoes are more common in the Midwest, Southeast and Southwest, they can occur in any state and at any time of the year, making advance preparation vitally important.

Prepare for a Tornado

  • Familiarize yourself with the terms that are used to identify a tornado hazard.
  • A tornado watch means a tornado is possible in your area.  You should monitor NOAA Weather Radio local radio and television news outlets for the latest developments.
  • A tornado warning is when a tornado is actually occurring, take shelter immediately.
  • Determine in advance where you will take shelter in case of a tornado warning.
  • Storm cellars or basements provide the best protection.
  • If underground shelter is not available, go into an interior room or hallway on the lowest floor possible.  In a high-rise building, go to a small interior room or hallway on the lowest floor possible.
  • Stay away from windows, doors and outside walls.  Go to the center of the room.  Stay away from corners because they attract debris.
  • A vehicle, trailer or mobile home does not provide good protection.  Plan to go quickly to a building with a strong foundation, if possible.
  • If shelter is not available, lie flat in a ditch or other low-lying area.  Do not get under an overpass or bridge.  You are safer in a low, flat location.
  • Plan to stay in the shelter location until the danger has passed.
  • Get a kit of emergency supplies. Store it in your shelter location.
  • Visit NOAA Watch for more weather-related information.

Plan to Take Shelter

  • If local authorities issue a tornado warning or if you see a funnel cloud.  Take shelter immediately.
  • Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do.  However, you should listen to NOAA Weather Radio, watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.
  • Stay in the shelter location until the danger has passed.

Stay Informed

  • After a tornado be sure to remain out of damaged buildings and stay clear of downed power lines.
  • Help injured or trapped people.  Check on others who may require special assistance, such as the elderly, children and people with disabilities.
  • Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do.  However, you should listen to NOAA Weather Radio, watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.

For more information go to: http://www.ready.gov/tornadoes


Thunderstorms

In the United States lightning kills 300 people and injures 80 on average, each year. All thunderstorms produce lightning and all have the potential for danger. Those dangers can include tornadoes, strong winds, hail, wildfires and flash flooding, which is responsible for more fatalities than any other thunderstorm-related hazard.

Lightning's risk to individuals and property is increased because of its unpredictability. It often strikes outside of heavy rain and may occur as far as 10 miles away from any rainfall. Most lightning deaths and injuries occur when people are caught outdoors in the summer months during the afternoon and evening.

Preparing for a Thunderstorm and Lightning

  • Familiarize yourself with the terms that are used to identify a thunderstorm hazard, including understanding the difference between a severe thunderstorm watch and a severe thunderstorm warning.
  • A Thunderstorm watch means there is a possibility of a thunderstorm in your area.
  • A Thunderstorm warning means a thunderstorm is occurring or will likely occur soon. If you are advised to take shelter so immediately.
  • Get an emergency supply kit.
  • Remove dead or rotting trees and branches that could fall and cause injury or damage during a severe thunderstorm.
  • Use the 30/30 lightning safety rule. If you see lightning and you cannot count to 30 before hearing thunder, go indoors. Then stay indoors for 30 minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder.
  • Visit NOAA Watch for more weather-related information.

Have a Thunderstorm Plan

  • If a thunderstorm is likely in your area, postpone outdoor activities.
  • Secure outdoor objects that could blow away or cause damage.
  • Shutter windows and secure outside doors. If shutters are not available, close window blinds, shades, or curtains.
  • Avoid showering or bathing during a thunderstorm. Plumbing and bathroom fixtures can conduct electricity.
  • Watch for darkening skies, lightning, increasing winds.
  • Listen to NOAA Weather Radio for information.
  • Go quickly inside a home, building, or hard top automobile, if possible.
  • If shelter is not available go to the lowest area nearby and make yourself the smallest target possible but do not lie flat on the ground.
  • If on open water, get to land and shelter immediately.
  • Things to avoid include:
  • Tall, isolated tree in an open area.
  • Hilltops, open fields, the beach, a boat on the water, isolated sheds or other small structures in open areas.
  • Anything metal - tractors, farm equipment, motorcycles, golf carts, golf clubs, and bicycles.

Stay Informed

  • Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do. However, you should listen to your battery operated or hand crank NOAA Weather Radio, watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.
  • Do not use electrical items such as computers or television sets as power surges from lightning can cause serious damage.
  • A corded telephone should only be used in an emergency, but cordless phones and cell phones are safe to use.

For more information about NOAA Weather Radio visit http://www.ready.gov/thunderstorms-lightning

 


bReady Anywhere

At Home

There are three steps to being prepared at home:
1) Prepare a Kit
2) Have a Plan
3) Be informed

When preparing for a possible emergency situation, it's best to think first about the basics of survival: fresh water, food, clean air and warmth.


Prepare a Kit

Recommended Items to include in a basic Emergency Supply Kit:

Water, one gallon of water per person per day for at least three days, for drinking and sanitation.
Children, nursing mothers, and sick people may need more water.

  • If you live in a warm weather climate more water may be necessary.
  • Store water tightly in clean plastic containers such as soft drink bottles.
  • In an emergency, you can use bleach to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.

Food, store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking and little or no water. Pack a manual can opener and eating utensils. Avoid salty foods, as they will make you thirsty. Select foods your family will eat.

Choose ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits and vegetables such as:

  • Protein or fruit bars
  • Dry cereal or granola
  • Peanut butter
  • Dried fruit
  • Nuts
  • Crackers
  • Canned juices
  • Non-perishable pasteurized milk
  • High energy foods
  • Vitamins
  • Food for infants

Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a NOAA Weather Radio with tone alert and extra batteries for both.

Flashlight and extra batteries (or self-charging flashlight).

First aid kit
In any emergency a family member or you yourself may be cut, burned or suffer other injuries. If you have these basic supplies you are better prepared to help your loved ones when they are hurt. Remember, many injuries are not life threatening and do not require immediate medical attention. Knowing how to treat minor injuries can make a difference in an emergency. Consider taking a first aid class, but simply having the following things can help you stop bleeding, prevent infection and assist in decontamination.

Things You Should Have:

  • Two pairs of Latex, or other sterile gloves (if you are allergic to Latex).
  • Sterile dressings to stop bleeding.
  • Cleansing agent/soap and antibiotic towelettes to disinfect.
  • Antibiotic ointment to prevent infection.
  • Burn ointment to prevent infection.
  • Adhesive bandages in a variety of sizes.
  • Eye wash solution to flush the eyes or as general decontaminant.
  • Thermometer
  • Prescription medications you take every day such as insulin, heart medicine and asthma inhalers. You should periodically rotate medicines to account for expiration dates.
  • Prescribed medical supplies such as glucose and blood pressure monitoring equipment and supplies.


Things It May Be Good To Have:

  • Cell Phone
  • Scissors
  • Tweezers
  • Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricant
  • Non-Prescription Drugs such as aspirin or nonaspirin, pain relievers, anti-diarrhea medications, antacids (for upset stomach) and laxatives

Whistle to signal for help

Dust masks to help filter contaminated air
Some potential emergencies could send tiny microscopic "junk" into the air. For example, flooding could create airborne mold which could make you sick and an explosion may release very fine debris that can cause lung damage. A biological terrorist attack may release germs that can make you sick if inhaled or absorbed through open cuts. Many of these agents can only hurt you if they get into your body, so think about creating a barrier between yourself and any contamination.

A variety of face masks are readily available in hardware stores. A face mask should be provided for each member of the family. Masks are rated based on their ability to filter out particles - you will need to decide which masks are best for your family and situation. Do whatever you can to make the best fit possible for children.

If an emergency situation arises and you do not have access to a face mask, any dense-weave cotton material that will snugly fit around your nose and mouth can offer some protection. It is very important that most of the air you breathe comes through the mask or cloth, not around it.

Given the different types of emergencies that could occur, there is not one solution for creating a barrier between yourself and any contamination in the air. For instance, simple cloth face masks can filter some of the airborne "junk" or germs you might breathe into your body, but will probably not protect you from chemical gases. Still, something over your nose and mouth in an emergency is better than nothing. Limiting how much "junk" gets into your body may impact whether or not you get sick or develop disease.

Other Barriers for "shelter-in-place"

  • Heavyweight plastic garbage bags or plastic sheeting
  • Duct tape
  • Scissors

There are circumstances when staying put and creating a barrier between yourself and potentially contaminated air outside, a process known as "shelter-in-place," is a matter of survival. You can use these things to tape up windows, doors and air vents if you need to seal off a room from outside contamination. Consider precutting and labeling these materials. Anything you can do in advance will save time when it counts.

Use available information to assess the situation. If you see large amounts of debris in the air, or if local authorities say the air is badly contaminated, you can use these things to tape up windows, doors and air vents if you need to seal off a room.

Find shelter information here.

HEPA Filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filtration)
Once you have sealed a room with plastic sheeting and duct tape you may have created a better barrier between you and any contaminants that may be outside. However, no seal is perfect and some leakage is likely. In addition to which, you may find yourself in a space that is already contaminated to some degree.

Consider a portable air purifier, with a HEPA filter, to help remove contaminants from the room where you are sheltering. These highly efficient filters have small sieves that can capture very tiny particles, including some biological agents. Once trapped within a HEPA filter contaminants cannot get into your body and make you sick. While these filters are excellent at filtering dander, dust, molds, smoke, biological agents and other contaminants, they will not stop chemical gases.

Some people, particularly those with severe allergies and asthma, use HEPA filters in masks, portable air purifiers as well as in larger home or industrial models to continuously filter the air.

Personal sanitation items

  • Moist towelettes
  • Toilet paper
  • Paper towels
  • Feminine supplies
  • Garbage bags with ties (for disposal of sanitation items)

Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities
Can opener for food (if kit contains canned food)
Local maps
Prescription medications and glasses
Infant formula, food and diapers
Pet food, extra water and sanitation items for your pet
Important family documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification and bank account records in a waterproof, portable container
Cash or traveler's checks and change
Emergency reference material such as a first aid book
Sleeping bags or warm blankets for each person. Consider additional bedding if you live in a cold-weather climate.
Complete change of clothing including a long sleeved shirt, long pants and sturdy shoes. Consider additional clothing if you live in a cold-weather climate.
Household chlorine bleach and medicine dropper - when diluted nine parts water to one part bleach, bleach can be used as a disinfectant. Or in an emergency, you can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.
Fire Extinguisher
Matches in a waterproof container
Mess kits, paper cups, plates and plastic utensils, paper towels
Paper and pencil and books, games, puzzles or other activities for children

Healthcare Facilities

There are several excellent sites that can assist South Dakota healthcare facilities in planning for emergencies. The sites selected below are ones recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). You can access the CDC site at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/planning/#healthcare

Bioterrorism Readiness Plan:

A Template for Healthcare Facilities - http://www.bt.cdc.gov/planning/#healthcare

OSHA Best Practices for Hospital-Based First Receivers of Victims

Information to assist hospitals in developing & implementing emergency management plans for protecting hospital-based emergency department personnel during the receipt of contaminated victims from mass casualty incidents occurring at locations other than the hospital. Provided by the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA). - https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/bestpractices/firstreceivers_hospital.html

Schools

These resources provide information that can help school leaders plan for any emergency, including natural disasters, violent incidents and terrorist acts.

School and Classroom Resources - http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/emischool/EL361Toolkit/PreventionResources.htm

Emergency Planning - http://www.ready.gov/school-emergency-plans

Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools - http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/edpicks.jhtml?src=ln

U.S. Department of Education - http://www.ed.gov/

Businesses

What Are The Costs?

How quickly your company can get back to business after a terrorist attack, a tornado, a fire, or a flood often depends on emergency planning done today. While the Department of Homeland Security is working hard to prevent terrorist attacks, the lessons of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks demonstrate the importance of being prepared.

When you also consider that the number of declared major disasters nearly doubled in the 1990's compared to the previous decade, preparedness becomes an even more critical issue. Though each situation is unique, any organization can be better prepared if it plans carefully, puts emergency procedures in place, and practices for emergencies of all kinds.

America's businesses form the backbone of the nation's economy; small businesses alone account for more than 99% of all companies with employees, employ 50% of all private sector workers and provide nearly 45% of the nation's payroll. If businesses are READY to survive and recover, the nation and our economy are more secure. A commitment to planning today will help support employees, customers, the community, the local economy and even the country. It also protects your business investment and gives your company a better chance for survival.

Ready Business outlines commonsense measures business owners and managers can take to start getting ready. It provides practical steps and easy-to-use templates to help you plan for your company's future. These recommendations reflect the Emergency Preparedness and Business Continuity Standard (NFPA 1600) developed by the National Fire Protection Association and endorsed by the American National Standards Institute and the Department of Homeland Security. It also provides useful links to resources providing more detailed business continuity and disaster preparedness information.

Business continuity and crisis management can be complex issues depending on the particular industry, size and scope of your business. However, putting a plan in motion will improve the likelihood that your company will survive and recover. The following information is a good start for small- to mid-sized businesses. Companies that already have their emergency plans in place can continue to help create a more robust sustainable community by mentoring businesses in their own supply chain and others needing advice.

Preparing makes good business sense. Get ready now.
 

Plan to stay in business
Business continuity planning must account for all hazards (both man-made and natural disasters). You should plan in advance to manage any emergency situation. Assess the situation, use common sense and available resources to take care of yourself, your co-workers and your business's recovery.

Be Informed: Know what kinds of emergencies might affect your company.

  • Continuity Planning: Carefully assess how your company functions, both internally and externally. Emergency Planning: Your employees and co-workers are your business's most important and valuable asset.
  • Emergency Supplies: Think first about the basics of survival: fresh water, food, clean air and warmth.
  • Deciding to Stay or Go: Shelter-in-place or evacuate, plan for both possibilities.
  • Fire Safety: Fire is the most common of all business disasters.
  • Medical Emergencies: Take steps that give you the upper hand in responding to medical emergencies.
  • Influenza Pandemic: The federal government, states, communities and industry are taking steps to prepare for and respond to an influenza pandemic.


For more information on any of these topics, go to: http://www.ready.gov/business 

 

Farms

Information for Livestock Owners

If you have large animals such as horses, cattle, sheep, goats, or pigs on your property, be sure to prepare before a disaster.

Preparation Guidelines:

  • Ensure all animals have some form of identification that will help facilitate their return.
  • Evacuate animals whenever possible. Arrangements for evacuation, including routes and host sites, should be made in advance. Alternate routes should be mapped out in case the planned route is inaccessible.
  • The evacuation sites should have or be able to readily obtain food, water, veterinary care, handling equipment and facilities.
  • Make available vehicles and trailers needed for transporting and supporting each type of animal. Also make available experienced handlers and drivers.
  • Note: It is best to allow animals a chance to become accustomed to vehicular travel so they are less frightened and easier to move.
  • If evacuation is not possible, a decision must be made whether to move large animals to available shelter or turn them outside. This decision should be determined based on the type of disaster and the soundness and location of the shelter (structure).


Cold Weather Guidelines:
When temperatures plunge below zero, livestock producers need to give extra attention to their animals. Prevention is the key to dealing with hypothermia, frostbite and other cold weather injuries in livestock.

Making sure your livestock has the following help prevent cold-weather maladies:
Shelter

  • Plenty of dry bedding to insulate vulnerable udders, genitals and legs from the frozen ground and frigid winds.
  • Windbreaks to keep animals safe from frigid conditions.
  • Plenty of food and water.

Also, take extra time to observe livestock, looking for early signs of disease and injury. Severe cold-weather injuries or death primarily occur in the very young or in animals that are already debilitated. Cases of cold weather-related sudden death in calves often result when cattle are suffering from undetected infection, particularly pneumonia. Sudden, unexplained livestock deaths and illnesses should be investigated quickly so that a cause can be identified and steps can be taken to protect remaining animals.

Animals suffering from frostbite don't exhibit pain. It may be up to two weeks before the injury becomes evident as freeze-damaged tissue starts to slough away. At that point, the injury should be treated as an open wound and a veterinarian should be consulted. 

Faith-Based Organizations

Organization and communication are the key!

One of the best ways to prepare for an emergency and ensure recovery afterwards is to organize leadership and prepare members ahead of time. It may be that many of your membership rely on a faith-based organization as their sole connection to the community. The networks already in place in your organization are the groundwork for success in surviving during disaster.

Establish Communication: Prepare to use existing channels or create new ones to reach your members. This may be an established "prayer chain" or other calling tree that can alert membership quickly. Published communications can provide regular information on preparedness. Services and meetings provide opportunities to communicate the importance of being prepared.

Organize Leadership: Select a committee and a leader that will spearhead distribution of information to members. Download our guidebook here, print and distribute it to your membership. If you'd like to order a quantity of bReadySD Guidebooks from the South Dakota Department of Health, call 1-800-738-2301.

Organize Members: Offer group talks on how you can work together to prepare kits and make individual plans. This will provide an opportunity to recognize members that may need special help during disaster and give them a chance to find people to communicate with — decide who will check on elderly or disabled members.

  • Work as a group to prepare kits together for those in need in your organization and community. These kits can be stored at your facility for use after disaster or distributed before disaster strikes.
  • Designate a phone number for members to leave an "I'm okay" message in case of catastrophic disaster.

Prepare your building: Your facility may be suitable as a shelter. Please contact your local fire department and have them do a "walk-through" to discuss this possibility. If your facility has space for storage consider stocking emergency supplies.

Prepare for medical complications: Medical emergencies vary greatly depending on the type of disaster. However, there are steps that can help you respond to any medical emergency.

Encourage members to take basic first aid and CPR training. If feasible, offer on-site classes. Your local emergency services organization may be able to provide these classes.

Keep first aid supplies in stock and easily accessible. Talk with your members about medical conditions that may require support or special care in an emergency. Be sure to include people with disabilities in emergency planning. Ask about communication difficulties, physical limitations, equipment instructions, and medication procedures. Address their needs at each step of the planning process.

Identify people willing to help members with disabilities and be sure they are able to handle the job. This is particularly important if someone needs to be lifted or carried. Plan how you will alert people who cannot hear an alarm or may not understand instructions.

Practice your plans to ensure members with disabilities and their helpers know what is expected of them.

Promote family and individual preparedness: Encourage your members and their families to develop plans at home. If individuals are prepared at home, they will have more time to assist others with recovery after a disaster. More information on personal and family preparedness is available here.

Support member health after the disaster: Emergencies happen in spite of everyone's best efforts to prevent them, so learn about what people need to help them recover after a disaster. Getting back to a normal routine is important to personal recovery. Faith-based routines facilitate recovery by providing members an opportunity to be active and restore social contact. Encourage adequate food, rest, and recreation.

Additionally, create opportunities for social gatherings where members can talk openly about their feelings. Sharing with others can speed personal recovery. Suggest counseling to help members address their fears and anxieties. 

 

 

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